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解讀劍橋雅思試卷開發流程(上)
文章來源: 瀏覽次數:0 更新時間:2007-08-03 08:13:54 網友評論 0 【字體:

  一向以來,雅思試題背后的各類故事都是考生津津樂道的話題,對付多年浸淫考試文化的數十萬中國考生而言,任何有關試題的內幕都是絕對不成放過的異寶奇珍,無不想不美觀之爾后快。這其中,劍橋官方若何從無到有“變出”白紙黑字的雅思試題這一試卷流程更像是一位蒙著秘密面紗的美男,額外迷人卻難睹真容。本日,筆者就率領巨匠走進這位“美男”——雅思試卷流程,揭開她身上的秘密面紗。

  首先來看一張圖表。

  The IELTS Question Paper Production Process

 

  這便是本日的主題:雅思試卷流程。很明白,從Commissioning of Material for Question Papers直至Live Test Release,該進程首要涉及9年夜根基關鍵,而在Pre-editing and Editing of Material以及Pretest Review兩個階段則各存在一次“檢定”——經由進程則連續,否則棄之或推倒重來(Rejection or Revision of Material)。詳細而言,雅思慮題從無到有這一步步走來經由了哪些挫折?接下來朗閣外洋考試研究中央就為巨匠分袂做一解讀。

  Commissioning of Material for Question Papers: 委托編選試題素材

  There are one or two commissions each year for each of our item writing teams. These feed material into the question paper production process. To reflect the international nature of IELTS, test material is written by trained groups of item writers in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and the USA and is drawn from publications sourced anywhere in the world. Overall test content is the responsibility of both externally commissioned language testing professionals – the chairs for each of the Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking sub-tests – and of Cambridge ESOL staff.

  Item writers work from test specifications. These specifications detail the characteristics of the IELTS sub-tests, outline the requirements for commissions and guide writers in how to approach the item writing process including selecting appropriate material; developing suitable items and submitting material for pre-editing and editing.

  解讀:雅思慮試每年有1到2次試題素材的委托編選,質料的選擇浮現了雅思慮試的國際性,既有來自英國、澳年夜利亞、新西蘭及美國的專業編寫職員按照考試要求完成的文章,也有從環球規模內挑選的出書物。認真職員既有對外委托的說話測試專家(他們將擔當風聞讀寫四個分項測試團隊的認真人),也來自劍橋考試委員會自身。

  Pre-editing and Editing of Material: 試題編寫

  Pre-editing is the first stage of the editing process and takes place when commissioned materials are initially submitted in draft form by item writers. A meeting is held involving chairs and Cambridge ESOL staff to review the material.

  The purpose of pre-editing is to ensure that test material is appropriate in terms of:

  ? topic

   topicality

   level of language

   suitability for the task

   length

   focus of text

  ? style of writing

   focus of task

   level of task.

  At this stage, guidance is given to item writers on revising items and altering texts for resubmission. This is seen as an important element in item writer training and advice is also offered on any rejected texts and unsuitable item types.

  Following pre-editing feedback, material is completed and submitted for editing. Editing takes place at meetings involving Cambridge ESOL staff and chairs. Item writers are encouraged to participate in editing meetings dealing with their material. This is seen as another important part of their ongoing training.

  At editing, texts and selected items are approved for pretesting or are sent back to a writer for further revision. Revised material is then re-edited at a subsequent meeting.

  解讀:雅思試題編寫現實分為預編寫和正式編寫兩個軌范。風聞讀寫每個單項組認真人與劍橋事戀職員之間首先將舉行一次編纂集會,就試題素材的題材、時效性、說話難度、長度、體裁等9細膩面舉行參議,確定其是否適實用于試題編寫;接下來,試題編寫團隊獲得指令,正式起頭問題問題編寫及素材改編,在此時代編纂集會將不竭舉行。

  Pretest Construction: 天生先期測試題

  Pretesting: 舉行先期測試

  IELTS pretests are very similar to the tests that will be used in live administrations.  The tasks are in their final form including task rubrics (instructions) and examples. Listening pretests are professionally recorded to ensure that they are of acceptable quality. Listening and Reading pretests are administered to IELTS candidates at selected centres or to prospective candidates on IELTS preparation courses. The pretests are marked at Cambridge ESOL and statistically analysed. Writing and Speaking pretests are administered to representative samples of candidates to assess the appropriateness of this material for use in live tests, and to establish that the tasks are capable of eliciting an adequate sample of language to allow for the assessment of candidates against the scoring criteria.

  解讀:一旦編寫事變開端完成,先期測試題就將天生并舉行現場測試以磨練試題是否到達尺度。先期測試題和現實的考試用題很是相似,其入耳讀兩個部門會在選定的考點或正加入雅思備考課程的潛伏考生中舉行,而說和寫則經由進程代表性的考生樣本群體來測試,為試題下場剖析供應數據。

>>解讀劍橋雅思試卷流程(下)


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