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新托福題型解析——推理題
文章來源: 瀏覽次數:0 更新時間:2010-05-18 17:12:41 網友評論 0 【字體:

  一、 推理題的標識表記標幟

  推理題的題干中一樣尋常含有infer, imply, most likely, least likely, probably等詞,分為有共性的推理題和無共性的推理題兩年夜類。

  二、 推理題的做法

  對付無共性的推理題,也便是題干中無線索的,一樣尋常使用解除法,即按照各個選項的關頭詞回原訂親位,經過進程解除法得出精確謎底。

  對付有共性的推理題,也便是題干中有線索的,朗閣外洋考試研究中央發起考生可以先圈定題干中的關頭詞,按照關頭詞回原訂親位,然掉隊行推理。推理題首要有下列思緒:

  1. 一樣尋常比擬推理

  ETS計劃推理題的本領未幾,按照兩個事物的比擬特性出題是其中之一。問其中一個事物的特性時,只要將與之形成比擬的另一個事物的特性否認失蹤就可以了。比方:

  It should be obvious that cetaceans, whales, porpoises, and dolphins are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like.

  Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about early sea otters?

  A. It is not difficult to imagine what they looked like.

  B. There were great numbers of them.

  C. They lived in the sea only.

  D. They did not leave many fossil remains.

  2. 時刻比擬推理

  這種思緒常被考到。在這種推理中,一樣尋常有兩個形成比擬的時刻段,它們所具有的特性一樣尋常相反。當題干問一個時刻段的特性時,只要將與之相反的時刻段的特性否認失蹤就可以了。

  例一:

  Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is the country’s impressive population growth….

  …It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.

  …

  It can be inferred from the passage that before the Industrial Revolution

  (A) families were larger.

  (B) population statistics were unreliable.

  (C) the population grew steadily.

  (D) economic conditions were bad.

  例二:

  Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the United States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations on popular tunes. At first, the music played bore no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.

  What can be inferred from the passage about the majority of films made after 1927?

  (A) They were truly “silent.”

  (B) They were accompanied by symphonic orchestras.

  (C) They incorporated the sound of the actors’ voices.

  (D) They corresponded to specific musical compositions.

  例三:

  “…The nineteenth century brought with it a burst of new discoveries and inventions that revolutionized the candle industry and made lighting available to all. In the early-to-mid-nineteenth century, a process was developed to refine tallow (fat from animals )with alkali and sulfuric acid. The result was a product called stearin. Stearin is harder and burns longer than unrefined tallow. This breakthrough meant that it was possible to make tallow candles that would not produce the usual smoke and rancid odor. Stearins were also derived from palm oils, so vegetable waxes as well as animal fats could be used to make candles …”

  Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about candles before the nineteenth century?

  A. They did not smoke when they were burned.

  B. They produced a pleasant odor as they burned.

  C. They were not available to all.

  D. They contained sulfuric acid.

  3.集結見解推理

  集結見解推理也可以稱之為百分比揣度,它指的是在一個集結中,包括兩個相對的方面,配合組成一個年夜的集結。一方所占的比例削減意味著另一方所占比例的增添;反之,一方所占的比例增添意味著另一方所占比例的削減。按照這一思緒,可以由集結中一方的數目轉變揣度另一方的消減。

  例一:

  A folk culture is small, isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. …Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada….

  By contrast, a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group, often highly individualistic and constantly changing.

  What does the author imply about the United States and Canada?

  (A) They value folk cultures.

  (B) They have no social classes.

  (C) They have popular cultures.

  (D) They do not value individualism.

  例二:

  Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the civil war, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution.

  What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?

  (A) New technological developments had little effect on farmers.

  (B) The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.

  (C) Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.

  (D) Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.


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